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Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) refers to the global telecommunications network that enables the transmission of voice and analog data over traditional copper telephone lines. It is a circuit-switched network infrastructure that has been in operation for many years and serves as the foundation for traditional landline telephone communication.

Here are key aspects of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN):

1. Circuit-Switched Technology: PSTN operates on circuit-switched technology, where a dedicated communication path is established between two parties for the duration of the call. This path remains open and exclusive to the callers during the entire conversation.

2. Analog Transmission: PSTN uses analog signals to transmit voice and other types of analog data. Analog signals are continuous waveforms that represent the variations in sound or data being transmitted.

3. Physical Infrastructure: PSTN relies on a physical infrastructure of copper wires, fiber optic cables, telephone exchanges, and switching systems to transmit and route voice calls across the network. These physical components are interconnected to form a vast network that spans across regions and countries.

4. Call Routing: PSTN employs a hierarchical call routing system to connect callers. Telephone exchanges and switching systems direct calls to the appropriate destination based on the dialed phone number. This routing process ensures that the call reaches the intended recipient.

5. Features and Services: PSTN supports various features and services, including call forwarding, call waiting, voicemail, caller ID, and conference calling. These services are provided by the telephone service providers and can be accessed by subscribers using traditional landline phones.

6. Legacy Technology: With the advent of digital and IP-based communication technologies, PSTN is considered a legacy technology. However, it still plays a significant role in providing reliable voice communication services in many areas where digital infrastructure is limited or inaccessible.

It's important to note that as technology advances, the telecommunications industry is transitioning from the traditional PSTN to newer technologies such as Voice over IP (VoIP) and cloud-based communication solutions. These newer technologies offer more flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and additional features compared to the PSTN.

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